The root of tribalism
Peoples under colonial Kivu
Administrative change realms existing leadership
Colonial Power, upon his arrival, changed the administrative organization of existing structures. It set up smaller administrative divisions, firstly, on the basis of geographical and orographic configuration, and then, based on the entities encountered on site. This just administrative convenience and not out of respect for the local authority.
And new designations appear territories as:
Territory Buhunde then became Bahunde-Wanyanga, that of Bahavu, as well as that of Banyabungo (Bashi), etc..
Reduction kingdoms leadership (smaller kingdoms) responds to the desire of settlers to reduce the power and authority of the monarchs of hardliners Kivu. The colonizer reduced their status to single heads of tribes subject to colonial rule. Several kings were thus relegated away from their territory.
Creation of “chiefdoms atypical”
They are created by the chiefdoms of settlers moving people from Rwanda to Congo. We mention three: The Chiefdom Bwisha (south of Rutshuru), the leadership of the Enclave of Gishari (Masisi) and Hunde chiefdom of Bukumu (north of Goma).
a) The chiefdom Bwisha (South Rutshuru): This leadership has been the merger of four former local entities: Jomba Busanza, and Gisigari Rugari; This is even certified by a Rwandophone author: Bishop P. Kanyamachumbi, 1993, pp. 37 and 117). This author also recognizes that “Before and after the king Kigeri IV Rwabugiri other kings of Rwanda have never given this land, and their authority is not never exercised.” The head Rwandophone was appointed in 1922 by the colonizer after relegation chief hunde Bikamiro,
b) The leadership of the “Enclave Gishari” in Masisi. These land 34,910 ha (350 km2) were purchased force leaders Bahunde the colonial power in 1939, to install Rwandan immigrants fleeing famine in Rwanda. Three leaders succeed at the head of this entity. In any case, there will be traditional leaders: Mr. Leenaerts (1938), Belgian director mutated and arrived in Rwanda in 1938 this entity to continue to care for immigrants that already mastered from Rwanda. In 1940, Mr. Leenaerts is replaced by the Head Bideri, from Rwanda and Bideri will itself be replaced in 1941 by another head Rwandan Buchanayandi. However, in 1957, Hunde recover their entity Gishari and get reinstated in the chiefdom Hunde Kishali. The “Gishari” entity created by the Belgian colonizer will therefore lasted 17 years.
c) the Hunde chiefdom Bukumu above Goma. It is typically Hunde chiefdom, but very mixed population. A traditional chief Hunde population sees its entity become strongly mixed with a majority of Rwandans;
Terms of occupation and annexation of Kivu by Rwanda
Share these historical facts, we find that people who are Banyarwanda in Kivu from either the colonial transplantation, or immigration caused by multiple wars and famines of Rwanda.
We note that these peoples were integrated and accepted initially by force, but eventually the local people have tolerated in a spirit of African solidarity. They could be hosted by the settlers, the head of chiefdoms, as indicated above. Tutsi, it is true, had less luck with the chiefdom “Gishari” at the head of which they did not last long.
However, gradually they accessed, as well as the Congolese various other positions of responsibility such as justices of the peace, business executives, government officials, etc.
These population movements towards the Kivu Banyarwanda had never been a problem of cohabitation with other populations of Kivu, until in 1959, with the influx of refugees Tutsi after the election victory of Hutu in Rwanda
Installed, with the help of the UN, in five refugee camps (Bibwe Ihula and North Kivu, Katobo, Lemera Mulenge and South Kivu), they will immediately engage in intrigues and meddling in politics the host country. Moreover, UNHCR officials, Red Cross and ONUC (UN Mission in the Congo) in 1961, disagree with this attitude of Tutsi refugees. Their attached document “NOTICE TO RWANDA REFUGEES” is unequivocally it (x)
Then, gradually, most of these Tutsi refugees left the camps illegally and settle in villages and towns of Kivu.
In 1964 the Tutsi proceed to claim an “automatic granting” of Congolese nationality, which led to a bloody conflict, called Kanyarwanda, that is to say, the emancipation of weapons from Rwanda, Tutsi and Hutus. This conflict ended in 1965.
Years of peace will follow one another. June 20, 1981, other Rwandans Congo wrote a petition called “People from Rwanda to Zaire” claiming self Kivu addressed to the Secretary General of the UN. That is to say its secession and its detachment from the whole of Congo. Attitude didl not succeed, and that was badly received by the Congolese and the international community.
Between 1990 and 1994, a large part of young Tutsi established in the Congo back to Rwanda to join the rebellion Kagame compounds other Tutsi refugees in Uganda and other countries in East Africa.
They overthrow the Hutu regime in Rwanda. After this victory, the new Rwandan army invaded the predominantly Tutsi Kivu, claiming to be in pursuit of Hutu perpetrators of the genocide in Rwanda, fleeing massively Kivu, and settled in refugee camps along the border with Rwanda. It will follow the massacres of Hutu refugee camps in the Congo. Once controlled Hutu refugees, the Rwandan army in the Kivu remains and proceeds by following the massacres of the people of Kivu fiercely opposed to the Rwandan occupation. Balance is known more than 1,800,000 displaced in Congo and Congolese refugees in neighboring countries such as Burundi, Tanzania, Zambia and Uganda. Casualties when his totaled more than 5,000,000 dead. For us, there is a genocide in Congo and to be internationally recognized.
The population of Kivu continues to denounce the plan whose implementation began in decades, and Laurent Nkunda, Chief of CNDP and his militia are now the Rwandan actors responsible for carrying out this work chaos. Many armed groups were created. Each tribewith its own armed group to protect their mother land such as : NYATURA, RAIYA MUTOMBOKI, MAI APCLS, M23, FDLR, MAI MAI and son on.
We wish , we recommended to victims and all people affected by war caused by tribalism to do their best in living searching how they may solve them!
– We recommand to Congo – Kinshasa government to restore state authority in North Kivu province;
– We recommand to government of Rwanda to make a peace dialogue between HUTU and TUTSI in Rwanda ;
– We recommand the DRC government to take charge and solve conflicts between tribes in North Kivu;
– Sensetitize and educate people about socio – economic realities and pacific cohabitation in the region.
– Equality in justice
– To government of DRC restore peace in North Kivu and eradicate all armed groups.
– We should encourage victims and rebels to come
– We encourage victims and rebels to come out their isolation and come to live in union with others, I wish , we would dialogue about conflicts and get a positive common ground for the development of North Kivu Province, peace cannot be got at the bottle but at a negotiating table.
– Finally we recommand to the government of DRC to identify all victims so that they lay be provided with : material support and financial aid and school aids.