Tribalism as one of the conflict sources in North Kivu

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“Education is the most important weapon to change North – Kivu province”

North Kivu Province, extremely reach in minerals, forest, animals, …has been transformed into a hell zone  by conflits war, tribalism, land conflict, ethnical conflits for more than twenty years.

Tribalism as one of the conflict sources in North Kivu” it intends to show people, what is mechanism which can be used so that we may end both tribalism and conflicts between people from North Kivu province, it is be mentioned that throughout  this blog, it is revealed : the origin both tribalism and conflicts  and how to end up with them.

“Tribalism as one of the conflict sources in North Kivu”. It is  not easy to people from North Kivu province to end with tribalism and conflicts which prevail and stop development of the region. Both tribalism and conflict lead to a fight, we found better to develop this topic so that, we may show local and strange people, how they may resolve theses issues.

In North Kivu Province, tribalism has created a chaos in the region. Poverty and armed groups are the fruit of tribalism in North – Kivu.  More than one million of people from north were killed, women raped, minerals of the province were looted and wild animals from Virunga park were killed too. Houses were destroyed even burnt.   Other people became lames. This bad situation, have been a blockage to the development of the province in every domain such as: science, technology, health, education, sport, economy, culture, scientific, environment, agriculture.

The current state we are living requires a long process which you  are going to find in our development.

How do  tribalism  and conflicts start in north Kivu?

Colonial Power, upon his arrival, changed the administrative organization of existing structures. It set up smaller administrative divisions, firstly, on the basis of geographical and orographic configuration, and then, based on the entities encountered on site. This just administrative convenience and not out of respect for the local authority.

And new designations appear territories as:

Territory  Buhunde then became Bahunde-Wanyanga, that of Bahavu, as well as that of Banyabungo (Bashi), etc..
Reduction kingdoms leadership (smaller kingdoms) responds to the desire of settlers  to reduce the power and authority of the monarchs of hardliners Kivu. The colonizer reduced their status to single heads of tribes subject to colonial rule. Several kings were thus relegated away from their territory.

2. Creation of “chiefdoms atypical”

They are created by the chiefdoms of settlers moving people from Rwanda to Congo. We mention three: The Chiefdom Bwisha (south of Rutshuru), the leadership of the Enclave of Gishari (Masisi) and Hunde chiefdom of Bukumu (north of Goma).

 a) The chiefdom Bwisha (South Rutshuru)

This leadership has been the merger of four former local entities: Jomba Busanza, and Gisigari Rugari; This is even certified by a Rwandophone author: Bishop P. Kanyamachumbi, 1993, pp. 37 and 117). This author also recognizes that “Before and after the king Kigeri IV Rwabugiri other kings of Rwanda have never given this land, and their authority is not never exercised.” The head Rwandophone was appointed in 1922 by the colonizer after relegation chief hunde Bikamiro,

 b) The leadership of the “Enclave Gishari” in Masisi.

These land 34,910 ha (350 km2) were purchased force leaders Bahunde the colonial power in 1939, to install Rwandan immigrants fleeing famine in Rwanda. Three leaders succeed at the head of this entity. In any case, there will be traditional leaders: Mr. Leenaerts (1938), Belgian director mutated and arrived in Rwanda in 1938 this entity to continue to care for immigrants that already mastered from Rwanda. In 1940, Mr. Leenaerts is replaced by the Head Bideri, from Rwanda and Bideri will itself be replaced in 1941 by another head Rwandan Buchanayandi. However, in 1957, Hunde recover their entity Gishari and get reinstated in the chiefdom Hunde Kishali. The “Gishari” entity created by the Belgian colonizer will therefore lasted 17 years.

 c) The Hunde chiefdom Bukumu above Goma.

It is typically Hunde chiefdom, but very mixed population. A traditional chief Hunde population sees its entity become strongly mixed with a majority of Rwandans; 
Terms of occupation and annexation of Kivu by Rwanda
Share these historical facts, we find that people who are Banyarwanda in Kivu from either the colonial transplantation, or immigration caused by multiple wars and famines of Rwanda.

We note that these peoples were integrated and accepted initially by force, but eventually the local people have tolerated in a spirit of African solidarity. They could be hosted by the settlers, the head of chiefdoms, as indicated above. Tutsi, it is true, had less luck with the chiefdom “Gishari” at the head of which they did not last long.

However, gradually they accessed, as well as the Congolese various other positions of responsibility such as justices of the peace, business executives, government officials, etc.

These population movements towards the Kivu Banyarwanda had never been a problem of cohabitation with other populations of Kivu, until in 1959, with the influx of refugees Tutsi after the election victory of Hutu in Rwanda

Installed, with the help of the UN, in five refugee camps (Bibwe Ihula and North Kivu, Katobo, Lemera Mulenge and South Kivu), they will immediately engage in intrigues and meddling in politics the host country. Moreover, UNHCR officials, Red Cross and ONUC (UN Mission in the Congo) in 1961, disagree with this attitude of Tutsi refugees. Their attached document “NOTICE TO RWANDA REFUGEES” is unequivocally it (x)

Then, gradually, most of these Tutsi refugees left the camps illegally and settle in villages and towns of Kivu.

In 1964 the Tutsi proceed to claim an “automatic granting” of Congolese nationality, which  led to a bloody conflict, called Kanyarwanda, that is to say, the emancipation of weapons from Rwanda, Tutsi and Hutus. This conflict  ended in 1965.

Years of peace will follow one another. June 20, 1981, other Rwandans Congo wrote a petition called “People from Rwanda to Zaire” claiming self Kivu addressed to the Secretary General of the UN. That is to say its secession and its detachment from the whole of Congo. Attitude didl not succeed, and that was  badly received by the Congolese and the international community.

Between 1990 and 1994, a large part of young Tutsi established in the Congo back to Rwanda to join the rebellion Kagame compounds other Tutsi refugees in Uganda and other countries in East Africa.

They overthrow the Hutu regime in Rwanda. After this victory, the new Rwandan army invaded the predominantly Tutsi Kivu, claiming to be in pursuit of Hutu perpetrators of the genocide in Rwanda, fleeing massively Kivu, and settled in refugee camps along the border with Rwanda. It will follow the massacres of Hutu refugee camps in the Congo. Once controlled Hutu refugees, the Rwandan army in the Kivu remains and proceeds by following the massacres of the people of Kivu fiercely opposed to the Rwandan occupation. Balance is known more than 1,800,000 displaced in Congo and Congolese refugees in neighboring countries such as Burundi, Tanzania, Zambia and Uganda. Casualties when his totaled more than 5,000,000 dead. For us, there is a genocide in Congo and to be internationally recognized.

 The population of Kivu continues  to denounce the plan whose implementation began in decades, and Laurent Nkunda, Chief of CNDP  and his militia are now the Rwandan actors responsible for carrying out this work chaos. Many armed groups were created. Each tribewith its own armed group to protect their mother land such as : NYATURA, RAIYA MUTOMBOKI, MAI APCLS, M23, FDLR, MAI MAI and son on.

Ways to put  end to tribalism

 Many people are looking  for ways  to put end to tribalism  which has been   one of the sources of conflicts in North – Province.  You should know that conflicts lead to tribalism and tribalism leads to a fight but they vainly end to them. There are some ways to put end to conflicts and tribalism between people from North – Kivu such as: forgiveness, mediation, reconciliation, avoiding hatred.  Tribalism is the blockage to conflicts resolution. So we should require to tribes from North Kivu.

Avoid tribalism

 Tribalism is the blockage to conflicts resolution. So we should require to tribes from North Kivu  to avoid hatred. All colors were created at the image of God.

Forgiveness

 To make understand that we are human born in sin so every one can offend and be offended by another but  the important  thing is to know what attitude shall you take if you offended some one, the first, make people understand  what is forgiveness. Many people are living in conflicts, tribalism because they don’t forgive one another.

 Mediation

The way  that people should know  is the fact  of being reconciled with one’s enemies, something which is quite difficult in our region. Unit is strength, about the reconciliation, this allow people from North Kivu  to constitute  the solid basis  for their works of development. Reconciliation with others brings a new love and peace and this is accompanied with God. It leads also to an equal justice and this causes that people be united. Disunion is the failure of people from North – Kivu province.

Role of mediator

 A mediator has the role to connect two parts which got split because of conflicts.

The mediator is needed for conflicts resolution because human beings in conflicts intend to eternally remain split; each part feels the enemy should remain away.

Advantages of peaceful life

 

We may say that someone lives in a peaceful life when it is realized really that people aren’t living in conflict with others. These are things that have been difficult to accomplish in our current life because we are living with broken hearts because of both conflict and tribalism with others.

Too many things change when people are living in peace, union and love.

 Love

 Love is an intense affection for other person bases on the familial or personal ties or link , this love between people leads to sympathy, pity, help, it means that every member of the group can feel concerned by a problem which has a member of this group.

Union

 Union is a result of peace full life which is found when people love one another, this love causes that people approach one another, this leads to union, and  the union is the  effective source of changes in every community, it was noticed that when people are united they elevate a community.

Discovering  community’s characters and   culture

 Peaceful life between people leads to discover community’s characters and culture in the way that people being loved and united to one another this leads to have time  of discussion of dowry, living manner of other community, some questions are asked such : how do you do this? , how do you marry in your community? Then answering to these questions people know one another culture of living.

In the same context, this is another new thing that we learn through conflict a lesson comes from consequences successful rather than pieces of advice.

Consequences of conflicts and tribalism

 Conflicts are developed day by day in North Kivu Province that people are undergoing consequences of tribalism and conflicts such as :

–       The war in our community

–       Lack of management.

–        of the North – Kivu province

–       No good leadership

–       Assassinations, looting

–       People are burnt  and buried alive

–       Women raped

–       Lack of education

–       Mental alienation

–       Jealousy between people

–       Witchcrafts among people

–       Virunga  fauna has been destroyed (animals killed now and then)

–       Villages and town have been  burnt

–       Poverty

–       Deaseses

–       Disunion between people

–       Living with broken hearts causes by oppressors

–       Revenge

–       The economy  of  the province has declined

–       In health no good hospital , health care centers

–       Lack of potable water

–       No electricity

–       Roads  are infected  and not rehabilited

–       The developpement of North Kivu province  has gone backward in many domains such : science, education, health, technology, culture, economy, agriculture, transportation  and so on.

 Recommandations

 We wish , we recommended to victims and  all people affected by war caused by tribalism to do their best in living searching how they may solve  them!

We recommand to Congo – Kinshasa government to restore state authority in North Kivu province;

We recommand to government of Rwanda to make a peace dialogue between HUTU and TUTSI in Rwanda ;

We recommand  the DRC government to take charge  and solve  conflicts between tribes  in North Kivu;

Sensetitize and educate people  about socio – economic realities and pacific cohabitation in the region.

Equality in justice

Freedom

To government of DRC   restore  peace  in North Kivu and eradicate all armed groups.

We should encourage victims and rebels to come

We encourage victims and rebels to come out their isolation and come to live in union with others, I wish , we would dialogue about conflicts  and get a positive common ground for the development of North Kivu Province, peace  cannot be got  at the bottle but  at a negotiating table.

Finally we recommand  to the government of DRC to identify all victims  so that they lay be provided with : material support and financial  aid and school aids.

At last the content  of this blog  highlights the ways that can be used to resolve conflicts opposing people.

Write  our own history and teach it to Congolese.

 

 

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